Information Technology Industry TimeLine

-1944 1945-1963 1964-1974 1975-1994 1995-

The present TimeLine page was designed to show the place of French computer industry facing its world-wide competition. It includes three kinds of entries : the major industry companies creations and dsmays with their main managers taking office, the introduction of significant computers or technology by those companies, some inventions that have taken place in the computer science. By no means, the list should be considered exhaustive and it is planned to add to it in the future. Imprecision of dates, especially delivery dates of products, are likely. Readers are invited to request for corrections or additions to the author. The present page will be eventually splitted in several more manageable pages when the state of events collection will become more stable.

Between 1945 and 1964, the computer industry was born, following the boom of the radio-industry during the WWII and the entrance of electronics (vacuum tube, then transistors) in the calculator industry. This period -actually until 1975- was marked by an injection of US Government money in Defense related activities. Many electronics firms were created or entered the computer field in USA and abroad believing that computers will be the largest electronics component users.

In that period, the computer industry was essentially  financed by government and by a few large companies (public utilities and aerospace). Advances made in the U.S. computer industry was due to the heavy subsidies of the Department of Defense , especially during the Korean war and the growing concern for a warming of the Cold War, especially after the launch of first Sputnik by USSR. In the United States, with, may be, the exception of IBM main laboratories, most computer related developments was made in a community of engineers and scientists having worked in defense related activities. 

In USA and in Great Britain, and also in some European countries, the 1950s and the early 1960s were marked by a significant involvement of the Universities to undertake themselves the development of computers and subsequently to transfer the know-how to the industry. 
Traditional card punch companies (IBM, Remington-Rand, Bull) were very closed to be submerged by new entrants, but they succeed to use their know-how in peripherals ...and the money earned in tabulators to survive to the shock of new entrants. 
Large private users started in the 1960s to offset government sponsored contracts. They succeed to impose a model of data processing centralization towards large computer centers (cf. Grosch's law). The new entrants became progressively focused to niche markets (defense, process control...) or were condemned to mergers with larger companies (Honeywell, Burroughs...)
Date

IBM

other USA

France

rest of the world

1945   discovery of microwave cooking by Raytheon's Percy Spencer    
1945       creation of Decca Navigator Company in UK
30 Jun 1945   publication of First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC by John Von Neumann.
EDVAC was only operational in 1951.
   
Oct 1945 end of design of IBM 603      
Dec 1945   first operation of ENIAC    
1945     direction of telecommunications become DGT Direction Générale des Télécommunications  
1945       establishment of a computer rearch center in NPL National Physical Laboratory at Teddington (UK) with Alan Turing as project leader
1946   foundation of Stanford Research Institute (SRI) at Stanford University    
14 Feb 1946   inauguration of ENIAC, first electronic computer built by the Moore School of University of Pennsylvania by J Presper Eckert, John Mauchly and others    
31 Mar 1946   resignation of Eckert and Mauchly from University of Pennsylvania on a patent conflict    
1946   introduction of RCA Orthicon TV camera developed at Princeton    
Apr 1946       foundation of Kashio Seisansho (Casio) by Tadao Kashio,
1946   creation of ONR Office of Naval Research by US Navy    
7 May 1946       foundation of Tokyo Tsuchin K (later named Sony) by Aki Morita and Masaru Ibuka
17 Jun1946   Mobile Telephone service developed by SouthWestern Bell and AT&T on 150MHz band in Saint Louis MI    
1946       acquisition of Marconi’s Wireless Telegraph Company by English Electric
Sep 1946 Introduction of IBM 603 electronic multiplier      
Sep 1946 Demonstration of IBM 604 calculator, first electronic calculator in batch production, delivered in fall 1948      
1946     creation of Compagnie Industrielle des Téléphones (CIT) by CGE  
1946   John von Neumann starts the design of computers at the Institute of Advanced Studies in Princeton.
IAS machineswere binary scientific computers designed for AEC laboratories and for Rand.
   
1946       Konrad Zuse invents Plankalkul programming language
Sep 1946   foundation of ERA Engineering Research Associates by Parker, Engstrom, and William Norris in Saint-Paul MN, on US Navy military cryptographic contracts    
Oct 1946   foundation of Electronic Control Company by Eckert and Mauchly Computer Company, A formal incorporation will take place in Dec 1947    
1946    creation of Project Rand by US Air Force and Douglas Corporation    
1946   Jan Rajchman at RCA proposes  "function or code generator" based on a resistive matrix for digital computers    
Dec 1946       nationalization of Cable & Wireless in United Kingdom
Jan 1947       foundation of the chaebol Lak Hui Lucky Chemical Industrial Co by In-hwoi Koo (Yonam)
1947   foundation of Association for Computing Machinery    
1947       creation of ISO International Organization for Standards
1947     creation of Sotelec,  a cartel of French telephone hardware providers headed by SAT  
7 Apr 1947   long (6 weeks) strike by AT&T workers cutting phones of 9 millions users of manual phones    
1947   ERA delivers to US Navy CSAW Communications Supplementary Activity Washington a  magnetic drum-based machine code-named Goldberg    
1947       invention of the Williams tube CRT memory
1947   Howard Aiken builds Harvard Mark II using Magnetic Drum storage    
23 Dec 1947   discovery of transistor by Willian Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain in Bell Laboratories, Nobel price 1956    
1948   foundation of the Rand Corporation , a non-profit organization ,     
27 Jan 1948 Inauguration of Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator SSEC at IBM in New-York where it operated until July 1952. SSEC was designed by Ernest Hughes and Robert Seeber under specs of Wallace J. Eckert. It featured a small vacuum tube memory, an intermediary relay memory and a large paper tape storage. Project was started early in 1946.      
Mar 1948     foundation of SEA , Société d'Electronique Appliquée à l'Automatisme by François Henri Raymond  
25 Apr 1948   first audio-recording at ABC using Ampex Model 200 tape audio-recorder    
1948   Claude Shannon at Bell Labs publishes "The Mathematical Theory of Communication"    
1948       Bell Telephone Manufacturing opens a new factory in Hoboken, Belgium to produce Pentaconta switching system
1948   foundation of Varian Associates by Sigurd and Russel Varian, to develop microwave equipment    
21 Jun 1948       first operation of the Small-Scale Experimental Machine aka Baby machine, designed by Freddie Williams and Tom Kilburn at University of Manchester. Memory was Williams tube.
Jul 1948 introduction of IBM 402 accounting machine (tabulator)      
1948     introduction of L43 switching system by CIT, a subsidiary of CGE  
1948   retirement of Walter Gifford president of AT&T, replaced by Leroy Wilson    
Oct 1948 first delivery of IBM 604 Electronic Calculating Punch,also named Electronic Calculator      
1948       establishment of ITMVT Institute of Precision Machines and Computer Technology in Moscow
Oct 1948   delivery of ERA Demon to CSAW a large vacuum-tube machine    
Oct 1948 IBM renames...   ...its French subsidiary IBM France
Dec 1948   operation of Harvard Mk II, aka ARC Aiken Relay Calculator, for Naval Proving Grounds, Dahlgren VA    
Dec 1948     death of Jacques Callies, CEO of Bull, replaced by his brother Joseph Callies  
14 Jan 1949   US DoJ files anti-trust suit against AT&T asking separation of Western Electric from Bell System, solved by consent decree of Jan 156    
1949   Introduction of Remington-Rand model 409 business computer, designed at Rowayton by Loring Crosman.Model 409 was shipped to IRS in 1952    
Apr 1949       prototype of Manchester Mk I
leading to Ferranti Mark I computers
May 1949 Announcement of IBM CPC Card-Programmed Calculator, including 604 calculator, 402 tabulator, CPC originated from a special 604+405 implemented by Northrop      
1949       first German electronic calculator for the Landesbrandkasse in Kiel, 
designed by Walter Sprick working in Remington Rand in Frankfurt-Rodelheim.
1949   Daniel E. Noble launches a Motorola research and development facility in Phoenix, AZ    
6 May 1949       fist operation of EDSAC designed by MV Wilkes at Cambridge University.
invention of the subroutine concept. Technology used mercury delay lines memory
May 1949       Establishment of National Research Development Corporation (NRDC) by the British Labour government.
NRDC acquired patents from Manchester for the Williams tube memory.
1949 introduction of IBM 407 accounting machine (tabulator)      
1949       creation of SITA Societe Internationale de Telecommunications Aeronautiques by 11 European airlines
Aug 1949   First operation of BINAC magnetic tape computer by Eckert & Mauchly for Northrop Aircraft    
Aug 1949   delivery of EDVAC by Moore School of U of Pennsylvania to Ballistic Research Laboratory    
Oct 1949       Termination of the agreement between IBM and British BTM
1949       connection of a magnetic drum on the Manchester Mk 1
Oct 1949       Termination of agreement between Remington Rand and Power-Samas in the U.K.
1949       acquisition by BTM of a plant at Castlereagh, Northern Ireland 
25 Oct 1949 Formation of IBM World Trade Corporation      
7 Dec 1949       creation of Olivetti-Bull in Italy
1949     Bull and Remington-Rand conclude a 10 years technical and sales agreement.
That agreement was the base of OEM sales of card equipments to Remington.
 
15 Feb 1950   Acquisition of Eckert and Mauchly EMCC by Remington-Rand that became the Univac division of that company    
10 May 1950       first operation of Pilot ACE designed by Alan Turing at NPL National Physical Laboratory in Teddington ( U.K.)
leading to the English Electric Deuce
1950   establishment of National Science Foundation in the USA    
Jul 1950 Following the start of Korean war, Watson Sr. decides to found a Military Products division and to put IBM resources at the US military needs,       
1950     introduction of Bull photo-reader of cards and marks  
1950       SITA installs its first communications telex network
1950   Bank of America contracts with  Stanford Research Institute for an experimental system to handle checks    
1950   first operation of Harvard Mark III system, aka ADEC Aiken-Dahlgren Electronic Calculator    
1950   Lark , fired at Point Mugu CA, first missile guided by combination of radar and imbedded electronics by Raytheon    
1950   development of FlowMatic by Grace Hopper, initially A0 language    
1950   National Bureau of Standards installed SEAC computer, built in Washington, using all-diode logic    
1 Oct 1950       death of Sir Raleigh Phillpots chairman of BTM, at 78 replaced by Sir Cecil Weir
1949   operation of SWAC Standards Western Automatic Computer at National Bureau of Standards at Los Angeles by  Harry Hushey,
dedicated in Aug 1960
   
1950   Commercial color television  by RCA/NBC is first broadcast in the United States    
1950       introduction of Zuse Z4
Dec 1950   first delivery of Atlas I by ERA to NSA in Nebraska
Atlas I will be known as Univac 1101. Project Atlas was sponsored by NSA starting in 1947.
   
Dec 1950   design of Whirlwind 16-bits binary computerby Jay Forrester and Ken Olsen at MIT, initially for US Navy DEW Distant early Warning    
Jan 1951 IBM decision to build a high performance scientific computer, the Defense Calculator      
Jan 1951       operation of MESM-1 by Sergei Lebedev in Kiev
Jan 1951      disclosure of plans to build a computer designed from 1947 by Louis Couffignal, from Institut Blaise Pascal of CNRS to be manufactured by Logabax.
The project was terminated in 1952
 
1951   GSI renamed Texas Instruments Inc    
22 Jun 1951   foundation of Wang Laboratories Inc by An Wang, from MIT, an inventor of ferrite core memory.    
Feb 1951       first operation of Ferranti Mk I computer
1951       British BTM orders OEM card equipment from Bull.
1951   RCA develops a 5120-bits memory for Air Force Cambridge Research Center for $750,000 using Selectron tube (256-bits)    
1951   delivery to CSAW of ERA Goldberg II    
1951       Vickers take majority in Powers Samas
1951   accidental death of Leroy Wilson CEO of AT&T, replaced by Cleo Craig    
1951   MIT creates the Lincoln Lab, to develop air defense systems, (SAGE, DEW, ABM)  initially at Lincoln it moved eventually at Lexington MA    
1951     development of CUBA binary computer by SEA  
31 Mar 1951   fist delivery of UNIVAC to the U.S. Census Bureau, formally accepted in June 1951    
1951 invention of vacuum column for magnetic tape unit      
1951       fist Heinz Nixdorf small size computer in Germany
1951       creation of Lyons Electronic Office (LEO) computer
introduction of Leo I computer based on EDSAC
Oct 1951     introduction of Gamma 2 electronic calculator by CMB, designed by Henri Feissel, Bruno Leclerc (both ex-LMT) et Pierre Chenus,   
1951       invention of microprogrammed architecture by Maurice Wilkes at Cambridge University UK
1951       design of CSIRAC by Maston Beard and Trevor Pearcy at the Sydney Radiophysics Laboratory, Australia
1951     Paris is the host to Cybernetics Congress  
Dec 1951   introduction of 1101 a commercial version of ERA Atlas    
Dec 1951   Acquisition by Remington Rand of ERA from Minneapolis-Saint Paul MN, concluded in Apr 1952    
Dec 1951   operation of EDVAC at BRL Aberdeen Proving Grounds    
1952   Construction of MANIAC computer at Los Alamos, under IAS plans    
1952   delivery of Harvard Mark IV to US Air Force    
1952       Olivetti sets a laboratory in Connecticut (USA)
16 Feb 1952   delivery of ORDVAC to Aberdeen Ballistic Laboratory, ORDVAC was designed by University of Illinois., under IAS plans    
1952       Alick Gennie develops AUTOCODE at Manchester University
1952 establishment of IBM Research laboratory at San Jose CA      
1952       establishment of NTT Nippon Telephone & Telegraph public corporation
1952       operation of M-1  electronic computer (diodes) 
16 Mar 1952   introduction of line-answering device by Bell system    
Apr 1952       agreement of cooperation between Fujitsu and Siemens
Jul 1952   operation of Raytheon Raydac, code-named Hurricane, built in Waltham  by Richard Bloch with magnetic tapes designed by Louis Fem    
Jul 1952       Heinz Nixdorf founds Nixdorf founded by the "Labor fur Impulstechnik" (LFI) financed by RWE
1952   Texas Instruments buys a Western Electric license to manufacture transistors    
1952   development of RCA Bizmac    
1952       introduction of BTM 555 calculator
Nov 1952   UNIVAC, used by CBS,  successfully predicts the election of Dwight D. Eisenhower as president of the United States.    
1952   Samas American assets are sold to Underwood Corporation    
1952       operation of Van der Poel's machine Testudo at Delft University, design started in 1947
Feb 1953   adoption of NTSC National Television Standards Committee color-TV standard, presented by RCA (reversing previous choice of CBS)    
Mar 1953     first delivery of CMB's Gamma 3 electronic calculator to Crédit Lyonnais.  
1953       prototype of HEC Hollerith Electronic Computer demonstrated by BTM
7 Apr 1953 introduction of IBM 701 Defense Calculator, designed by Nathaniel Rochester      
1953   establishment of NTSC, a development of RCA,  as the US color TV standard,     
1953   introduction of Univac 60/120, successor of Model 409 and predecessor of Univac 1004    
Jul 1953 introduction of IBM 650 magnetic drum computer      
Jul 1953   delivery of Raytheon Raydac at Point Mugu CA    
1953   installation of Burroughs UDEC Universal Digital Electronic Computer at Wayne University    
1953       operation of BESM-1 high-speed electronic calculating machine  in Moscow designed under Lebedev
1953   introduction of Consolidated Engineering Corporation  CEC 101Datatron    
1953   Elecom is bought by Underwood     
1953       introduction of Elliott Brothers London Ltd 403 computer designed by Charles Owens and Lawrence Clark under Andrew Johnson, featuring a nickel delay line memory
1953 operation of ILLIAC at Illinois University    
Sep 1953 introduction of IBM 702 large scale business computer      
1953   Burroughs Adding Machine Company changes name into Burroughs Corporation    
Oct 1953   first delivery of ERA Atlas II 1103 to NSA    
1953   foundation of Ramo Wooldridge by  ex-Hughes employees Simon Ramo and Dean Wooldridge    
Nov 1953       operation of Besk (Binär Elektronisk Sekvens-Kalkulator) designed by Erik Stemme  in Sweden
1953   Consolidated Engineering Corp renamed Electro Data Corporation    
1953 Lou Stevens take responsibility of San Jose lab      
Feb 1954   operation of JOHNNIAC built at Rand under Bill Gunning at Santa Monica, with a 4Kw memory of Telemeter Magnetics    
Apr 1954       Fujitsu introduces Japan's first commercial computer, FACOM 100
May 1954   Texas Instruments announces first commercially available transistors    
May 1954       introduction of Japan-made transistors by Sony
1954     Introduction of PPC (card programming) in Gamma 3 by CMB  
1954       operation of Strela computer built by the Ministry of Machine and Instrument Construction in Moscow
1954   introduction of NCR 303    
1954       Nusse (Norsk Universell Siffermaskin, Selvstyrt, Elektronisk) was constructed in Norway  under the leadership of Thomas Hysing
1954       operation of Computer Research CRC-102A in Politecnico of Milan, first computer in Italy
2 Jul 1954   introduction of Speakerphone by Bell    
1954   foundation of Commodore, a typewriter repair service by Jack Tramiel in New-York    
Aug 1954       introduction of Powers-Samas PCC  Programmed Control Computer
1954       introduction of English Electric DEUCE computer, based on NPL Pilot ACE
Oct 1954 introduction of IBM 704 scientific computer, Gene Amdahl chief designer introduction of IBM 726 tape unit at 100bpi, 75 ips      
1954   introduction of Philco TRANSAC computer    
Oct 1954 introduction of IBM 608 transistorized calculator      
Oct 1954 introduction of IBM 705 large business computer      
1954       introduction of Toshiba TAC its first digital computer for Tokyo University
25 Oct 1954 Steve "Red" Dunwell and Werner Buchholz propose the code-named "Datatron" for a large computer, paving the way for the Stretch program      
1954       death of Alan Turing, at 42
Nov 1954   introduction of Univac 1103A    
1954   Bell Telephone delivers TRADIC, the first fully transistorized computer    
2 Dec 1954 disclosure of IBM NORC Naval Ordnance Research Computer designed by Research in New-York      
1954     introduction of SEA CAB 2000, scientific computers  
Jan 1955       introduction of BTM 901 tabulator
1955       re-entry of IBM in the British computer market
1955       delivery of Elliott 402 computer
Jan 1955   introduction of Remington-Rand  File Computer, a drum-based machine developed at Saint-Paul that will be operational only in Aug 1958    
1955       BTM signs an OEM agreement with Machines Bull of France to buy multiplying punches and interpreters
Jan 1955       BTM acquires the Vickers Dartford plant 
1955     Introduction of Gamma Tambour (a magnetic drum computer) by CMB
delivered in 1956
 
1955       delivery of BTM HEC 2M
1955 first delivery of IBM 702 large business computer      
1955       foundation of LEO Computers Ltd by J. Lyons to market automatic office computers, derived from a Cambridge University design
1955   Sperry takes over Remington Rand (including UNIVAC) and becomes Sperry Rand    
Mar 1955   foundation of CUC Computer Usage Company, in New-York, by Elmer Kubie   and John W. Sheldon (ex-IBM)    
1955   Installation of the first ERMA system by SRI at Bank of America at Palo Alto CA    
18 Mar 1955   initial tests of electronic switching at Morris IL by Bell    
May 1955 operation of RAMAC random-access method of accounting and control in San Jose with 5M char drive on 50 disks      
1955   foundation of William Shockley's Semiconductor Laboratory in Shockley Transistor    
1955       construction of Calcatrice Elettroniche  Pisana, that was impulse by Enrico Fermi
1955   Honeywell and Raytheon establish a joint venture named Datamatic Corp
   
1955       introduction of BTM 902 tabulator
Jun 1955   delivery of AFCRC to USAF (Hanscom Field AB in MA) by Univac's Philadelphia division
The AFRCRC, a drum computer, was designed since 1952 and will be eventually accepted in April 1956
   
Jul 1955     operation of SEA CAB 1011 for cryptographic studies  
Sep 1955   Livermore AEC lab signs with Sperry Rand a LARC contract to be designed in Philadelphia    
Oct 1955     delivery of SEA CAB2200 computer  
1955       creation of IBM Research laboratory in Zurich, fouded by Prof.dr. Ambros Speiser, later headed by Walter Proebster
23 Nov 1955       establishment under the impulse of Adriano Olivetti of an Electronic Research Laboratory in Pisa 
13 Jan 1956 introduction of IBM 350 RAMAC disk storage, developed at San Jose CA      
jan 1956 first delivery of IBM 704 at Los Alamos      
22 Jan 1956 consent decree with the US department to settle 1952 IBM antitrust suit, specifying bases for IBM's patents policy, making public the punched cards manufacturing know-how      
24 Jan 1956   consent decree limiting the Bell System to common carrier communications and government projects but preserving the AT&T ownership of Bell Laboratories and Western Electric..   divestiture of Western Electric interests in Bell Canada  spinning off Northern Telecom
1956     creation of Secam color TV standard by Henri de France at Thomson  
1956   introduction of Burroughs E101 small computer    
1956       delivery of Elliottt 405 computer
1956   Frederick Kappel replaces Cleo Craig as AT&T CEO    
Mar 1956   Ampex introduces its first video-tape recorder VRX-1000    
1956       DASK (Dansk Automatic Eskvens Kalkulator) was developed based on Swedish BESK at Regnecentralen and was operational in 1956
Apr 1956   General Electric receives letter of intent of Bank of America for ERMA system    
8 May 1956 Thomas J Watson Jr. becomes IBM CEO      
19 Jun 1956 death of Thomas J Watson, at 82      
1956   acquisition of Electrodata by Burroughs. The Datatron is renamed Burroughs 201 , leading to Burroughs eventually to D825 computer    
1956       shipment of NEC crossbar switching system to NTT
Jul 1956       creation of a joint subsidiary Computer Developments Ltd CDL  between BTM and GEC (General Electric Company) in the UK
1956     Introduction of Gamma AET (Armoire Extension Tambour a drum computer) by CMB  
1956 introduction of IBM 610 Auto-Point Computer (also named Personal Automatic Calculator) designed by John Leitz at Watson Lab of Columbia University in 1948      
1956   creation of a General Electric plant in Phoenix AZ under Barney Oldfield    
1956   RCA ships Bizmac to US Army Ordnance Dept    
1956       introduction of Siemens 2002 computer
1956       development of Samastronic tabulator
1956 foundation of Rochester unit-record devices plant      
1956       first delivery of Ferranti Pegasus
1956   GE established a service bureau center in Phoenix with Herb Grosch (ex-IBM) and an IBM704    
1956       first transatlantic telephone cable TAT1 between Scotland and Newfoundland
1956     creation of an electronics department at Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble (later named LETI Laboratoire d'Electronique et de Technologie de l'Informatique)  
1956       Foundation of Sega in Japan by David Rosen
1956   introduction of Librascope General Precision LGP-30 mini-computer    
23 Aug 1956   first experiment of picture phone by Bell Labs    
1956   Introduction of E13B MICR (magnetic ink character recognition)    
1956   MIT Lincoln Lab completes TX-0 transistorized computer    
1956       STC introduces Stantec Zebra computer delivered in 1958
1956     introduction of first battery-operated watch by Lip in France  
1956   Spin-off of Systems Development Corporation established for SAGE support, from the Rand Corporation
SDC will become a for-profit company in 1966 and was acquired by Burroughs in 1980
   
Nov 1956 introduction of IBM 305 RAMAC designed at San Jose CA, a 5MB 50 platters disc drive.
first customer Zellerbach Paper in San Francisco
     
Nov 1956       delivery of BTM type 1201 (aka HEC 4 ) computer
1956   operation of Maniac 2 in Los Alamos    
19 Dec1956     initial disclosure of Gamma 60 large scale business computer by CMB  
1956 ?   introduction of Bendix G-15 designed by Harry Huskey    
1956   Midwestern Instruments , instruments in geophysics, from Tulsa OK acquires Magnecord     
1956   Arnold Spielberg (ex-RCA) joins General Electric in Phoenix designing process control computers (GE-312)    
Feb 1957 Introduction of the Fortran language designed by John Backus on IBM 704      
1957   first delivery of Datamatic D1000 by Honeywell to Blue Shield/Blue Cross    
1957       development of Elea IV (or Macchina Zero) in Pisa designed by Maro Tchou
1957     merge between CSF and SFRE  
17 Apr 1957   Bell Laboratories announces development of magnetic tape machine capable of transmitting 1,000 wpm    
1957 completion of Univac Athena system for Titan ground control. Athena was designed by Seymour Cray    
1957       foundation of SGS by Olivetti and Telettra
1957   General Problem Solver, by Allen Newell, J. C. Shaw, and Herbert Simon.    
1957   design of GE-312 process control computer by Arnold Spielberg for Jones & Laughlin     
1957   Noam Chomsky writes Syntactic Structures, helping to understand languages structures    
1957       foundation of Elliott Automation by Elliott Brothers
Jun 1957   installation of Burroughs Atlas Guidance Computer at Cape Canaveral FL
AN/GSQ-33 was designed by Isaac Auerbach
   
1957   foundation of Control Data Corporation in Minneapolis MN by William Norris from Sperry Rand-Univac    
Jun 1957       introduction of Model 14-A calculator by Casio Computer Co
1957       Nixdorf develops Electronic Calculator EM 22 to be introduced by Bull as Gamma 172
Jul 1957   delivery of Univac Bogart designed by S Cray to NSA    
Jul 1957       acquisition by BTM of 51% of Data Recording Instruments a company developing magnetic tape devices
1957   foundation of Digital Equipment by Ken Olsen, and Harlan Anderson of MIT Lincoln Lab    
1957     creation of Cofelec Compagnie des Ferrites Electroniques by CSF, Thomson, Ugine and Bull  
1957       Soviet Union launches first satellite of Earth, Sputnik.
1957       Elliott Brothers renamed Elliott Automation
Sep 1957   Fairchild hires Robert N Noyce, Gordon E Moore, C. Sheldon Roberts, Eugene Kleiner, Robert N. Noyce, Victor H. Grinich, Julius Blank, Jean A. Hoerni and Jay T. Last (ex- Shockley) to work in transistors    
1957   introduction of Sylvania MOBIDIC military computer    
1957       delivery of BTM type 1202 drum computer (HEC based)
1957   U.S. (Eisenhower administration) creates ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency    
Dec 1957 first shipment of IBM 608 calculator      
1957   Midwestern Instruments acquires Data Storage Devices    
1957   departure of Seymour Cray from Univac to Control Data    
Dec 1957       delivery of Boston's LFE Laboratory for Electronics Apollo computer prototype to BTM.
Diana project terminated early in 1958
Dec 1957   completion of the prototype of UCT future Univac Solid-State computer, formally announced in Dec. 1958    
1958   delivery of ERMA system by General Electric at Bank of America, accepted 14 Sep 1959 in Los Angeles    
1958   formation of Fairchild Semiconductor at Mountain View CA under Robert Noyce    
1958   introduction of Honeywell H-800    
1958       Schaub-Lorenz becomes Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG
1958   Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at MIT founded by John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky    
1958   creation of DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency    
1958     Bull propose the CMC-7 MICR standard, adopted by French banks since the 1960s  
1958   Midwestern introduces M3000 tape drive    
1958 IBM develops a special computer AN/FSQ-7 for SAGE      
1958       NEC demonstrate the NEAC 1101, its first computer using parametrons magnetic technology
1958     Jean Auricoste leaves SEA for Intertechnique. He concludes agreements with Ramo-Wooldridge  
1958   Control data acquires Cedar Engineering    
1958     creation of SEMA Société d'études de mathématiques appliquées by Jacques Lesourne, Marcel Loichot and Robert Lattès  
1958   First delivery of Univac II    
1958   first delivery of RCA 501    
1958       operation of M-20 designed by Shoura-Boura under Lebedev, manufactured in Kazan
1958 release of Fortran II integrating assembly language subroutines      
1958       operation of BESM-2 developed by Lebedev
May 1958 NSA orders a Harvest system from IBM (project Stretch)      
1958 introduction of IBM 709 based on IBM 704      
1958     delivery of first SEA CAB3000 to Comptoir français de produits sidérurgiques  
1958   first delivery in Europe of Remington-Rand UCT Universal Card Tabulating machine, later known as Solid-State computer    
1958   John McCarthy creates the programming language LISP at MIT    
Jul 1958 first SAGE center operational      
1958   merge between Thompson Products and Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation in Los Angeles CA    
Aug 1958   fist delivery of Univac File I Computer    
1958   release of APT Automatically Programmed Tools by Douglas Ross    
Oct 1958       establishment of Goldstar Co by LG group to manufacture consumers electronics
Oct 1958   Thompson Products merge with Ramo-Wooldridge forming TRW Thomson Ramo-Wooldridge    
1958       Algol (initially International Algebraic Language) report published by Peter Naur, Alan Perlis and Samuelson.
Oct 1958   first integrated circuit of Jack Kilby from Texas Instruments, with 5 Germanium devices    
Oct 1958   programming of "tennis for two" by William a. Higinbotham at Brookhaven National Laboratory    
Oct 1958 Sylvania orders a 709TX system from IBM for  BMEWS Ballistic Early Warning System
709TX will be publicly announced as IBM 7090.
     
1958     development by Daniel Starynkévitch from SEA of PAF Programmation Automatique de Formules a  language similar to BASIC that will be delivered on CAB500  
Dec 1958   shipment by General Electric of first ERMA system to Bank of America    
Dec 1958       establishment of the IBM UK laboratory in Hursley Park
Jan 1959   Lincoln Lab of MIT set up the Mitre, a non-profit company for SAGE development, with Hap Halligan (ex-Bell Labs) as president, in Bedford MA    
1959   RCA starts the development of integrated circuits under US Army Micromodule program    
1959   introduction of Xerox first commercial copier    
Feb 1959   Telex, Inc bought by Arnold Ryden    
1959   Fairchild Semiconductors shows an integrated circuit made of aluminum wires on silicon device    
1959       introduction of Elea 9003 by Olivetti
1959   release of LISP 1.5 at MIT    
Apr 1959       introduction of Fujitsu Facom-212
1959   USAF orders a General Electric M236, designed by John Couleur for trajectography at Eleuthera Island    
May 1959 IBM reorganization creating GPD General Products Division and DSD Data Systems Division out of DPD. GPD was to be responsible of small systems and DSD the largest.      
28 May 1959   creation of COBOL by Codasyl (Conference on Data Systems Languages), under Grace Hopper, from US Navy, leadership    
1959   foundation of Computer Sciences Corp. (CSC) by Fletcher Jones and Roy Nutt, on the base of a contract with Honeywell for a FACT compiler    
1959       Merge of BTM and Powers-Samas forming ICT
1959   creation of Chucking Grinder Co at Springfied VT    
1959   foundation of National Semiconductors     
1959 creation of Ken Iverson's A Programming Language APL      
1959       Toshiba produces first transistor television set
1959       Standard Elektrik Lorenz delivers ER-56 drum-based computer
1959   foundation of ADR Applied Data Research by Marty Goetz and others (ex-Sperry-Rand)    
1959       NEC demonstrates NEAC 2201 a transistorized computer
1959     development of experimental computer MOP at ONERA Office national d''Etudes et recherches Aéronautiques  
Sep 1959   acquisition of Underwood by ..   ...Olivetti
1959   First delivery of Univac SS computer to Economics Laboratory in Minneapolis    
Oct 1959 introduction of IBM 1401 introduction of chain printer IBM 1403   1401 project has evolved from an IBM French project named WWAM, a reaction to the success of Bull Gamma 3  
Oct 1959 introduction of IBM 1620 small scientific computer, code-named CADET      
Nov 1959   introduction of Ramo-Wooldridge RW-300    
1959       delivery of Elliott 803
Dec 1959   introduction of RCA 501    
Dec 1959 first delivery of IBM 7090 using SMS technology      
1 Jan 1960       unification of AEI under leadership of Lord Chandos
Jan 1960 introduction of IBM 7080 large business computer      
1960 initiation of Series 8000 under Frederick Brooks
terminated in March 1961
     
Jan 1960     first delivery of Gamma 60 to EDF  
Jan 1960   fist shipment of CDC 1604, to US Navy Bureau of Ships, 1604 was designed by Cray inspired by Bogart computer    
1960   invention of hyperlinks by Ted Nelson    
1960   Honeywell acquires Raytheon interests in Datamatic and renamed it EDP    
1960   first shipment of Honeywell H-800    
1960   introduction of CDC 160 small computer    
1960       introduction of AEI 1010 in the UK
1960   foundation of Teradyne, by Alex d'Arbeloff and Nick DeWolf , at Boston, for building electronics testing equipment    
1960       Nixdorf develops for Bull Gamma 172 and Gamma 322 electronic calculators supporting respectively tabulators of Series 150 and 300TI
1960       Siemens Brothers UK, an off-spring of Siemens since 1860s  is acquired by AEI
1960 introduction of IBM 609 transistorized electronic calculator      
1 Apr 1960       operation of ESKO (Elektroninen Sarja Komputaatori - Electronic Sequence Computer) at University of Helsinki
1960       English Electric manufactures RCA 501 under license under the name KDP10
Apr 1960 announcement of the IBM 7030 (Stretch) largest computer      
1960   Shockley Transistor Corporation sold to Clecite.
it will be resold to ITT in 1963 and dissolved in 1968
   
27 Apr 1960       creation of ECMA European Computer Manufacturers Association, a standardization body by Compagnie des Machines Bull, IBM World Trade Europe Corporation and ICT
May 1960   delivery of Univac LARC computer to AEC Livermore lab, finally accepted in Aug, 1960    
May 1960       introduction of  CDL Coventry developed ICT 1301 medium size computer
1960   Creation of magnetic strip credit card at First Western Bank of San Francisco, system adopted by VISA    
1960   first delivery of Honeywell 400 computer    
1 Jul 1960     creation of CAE Compagnie d'Automatisme Electronique, a subsidiary of CSF with Intertechnique and Ramo-Wooldridge
introducing RW-300
 
Sep 1960 introduction of IBM 1410 business medium-scale computer initially designed at Endicott      
Nov 1960   first delivery of DEC PDP-1 Programmed Data Processor to BBN designed since August 1959 by Benjamin Gurley and Dick Best    
1960   AT&T introduces the Bell Dataphone modem at 200 bds    
1960     delivery of SNERI KL901 digital computer to Météorologie Nationale, operational in 1962  
Oct 1960       death of Sir Cecil Weir chairman of ICT
7 Nov 1960   first operation of Joss, a JOHNNIAC time-sharing system by Cliff Shaw at Rand Corporation    
Nov 1960       termination of Samastronic program by ICT
Dec 1960   first demonstration on IBM 709 of JOVIAL compiler developed by Jules Schwartz for USAF    
Dec 1960   Introduction of Univac 1107.
First delivery will be in Sep 1962
   
Dec 1960   delivery of Honeywell 800    
Dec 1960   General Electric ships to NCR its first NCR304 evolved from ERMA project    
16 Jan 1961   Bell proposed a new service called TELPAK which would create "electronic highways"    
1961 introduction of Report Programming Language on IBM 1401      
Feb 1961     first delivery of CAB500 by SEA  
1961   Chucking Grinder Co moves to Walled Lake MI and becomes Bryant Computer Products, a subsidiary of Ex-Cello
Bryant disk drive had a horizontal axis and 39 in disks
Bryant disks were available on Gamma 30 (RCA301)  
Feb 1961       Fujitsu introduces large transistorized FACOM 222 computer
1961   delivery of Univac AN/USQ-20 as Naval Tactical Data System    
1961   creation of SpaceWar by Steve Russell on MIT's PDP-1    
Mar 1961       operation of Ural 1 in Moscow
Mar 1961       merge of GEC computer staff with ICT Engineering
1961     Bull introduces the Multisélecteur, a tape-unit and controller on Series 300  
1961   introduction of Teradyne diode tester D133    
16 Apr 1961 Shipment of IBM 7030 to Los Alamos      
Apr 1961   Arnold Ryden takes control of Midwestern Instruments and renames the company Telex
1961     creation of CEGOS  
1961     creation of CERCI inside Schneider Group  
1961       ICT absorbs GEC computer interests
1961       introduction of Ferranti Orion
1961   introduction of DEC PDP-1 minicomputer    
May 1961   introduction of Burroughs B-5000 designed in Pasadena    
May 1961 Thomas J Watson Jr. is named chairman and CEO of IBM      
1961     first delivery of Series 300TI, a 300 cpm card equipment by CMB.  
1961 introduction of IBM 1301 disc storage      
1961       establishing of Shinshu Seiki (Shinshu Precision Manufacturing Company) a subsidiary of Seiko
It will be later known as Epson
1961 SCAMPdeveloped in the UK gave IBM the first opportunity to use control storage     development by of SCAMP Scientific Computer and Modulator Processor at IBM Hursley UK by John Fairclough
1961       introduction of Zuse Z23 computer.
A total of98 Z23 from Zuse AG were delivered
1961 introduction of IBM Selectric "golfball" typewriter      
1961       Plessey acquires A.T. & E and Ericsson Telephones Ltd
Jul 1961 formation of IBM Components Division with plant in East Fishkill NY and later in Burlington VT      
Aug 1961  introduction of IBM 1419 an E13B magnetic character reader/sorter       
1961       introduction of Elea 6001 by Olivetti, a medium-sized computer
1961     Texas Instruments installed at Nice to manufacture semiconductors  
1961   Control Data acquires Librascope    
1961 Development of MIT Compatible Time Sharing System CTSS on modified 7090, under Fernando Corbato      
Oct 1961     introduction of SEA 3900 business computer  
1961   introduction by Fairchild of RTL resistor-transistor logic in monolithic circuits    
Oct 1961 establishment of SPREAD task-force for defining a new line of computers, under John Haanstra and Bob Evans      
1961       GEIR (Geodetisk Instituts Elektroniske Regnemaskine) built in Denmark by RegneCentralen
1961   Texas Instruments establish a factory... ...at Villeneuve-Loubet, near Nice  
1961       GEC takes over Radio and Allied Industries (RAI
1961   foundation of SDS Scientific Data Systems by Max Palevsky (ex-Packard-Bell)    
Oct 1961     creation of SETI, a subsidiary of Compagnie des Compteurs by Jean  Gaudfernau who left SEA in 1959 introduction of Packard-Bell PB250 minicomputer by SETI  
Oct 1961     agreement between CMB and RCA to sell and manufacture RCA301 under the name Gamma 30 ICT concludes an agreement for the sale of RCA301 under the name ICT 1501 Siemens concludes an agreement for selling RCA301 Hitachi concludes an agreement to sell the RCA301
1961   Paul K. Weimer from RCA developed the thin-film field effect transistor    
1961 project Advanced Disk File with Alan Shugart at San Jose, with 24 in disks and one head by surface      
Nov 1961 MIT made first experiments of CTSS on IBM 709      
1961       operation of BESM-4 in Moscow
9 Nov 1961       accidental death of Mario Tchou, the Olivetti computer pioneer 
1961   operation of R1 Rice University computer designed by Martin Graham (from Brookhaven Laboratory) and Joe Bighorse    
Nov 1961 IBM assembles the SPREAD task force to design a New Product Line, that will become the System 360    
Nov 1961     shipment of SEA Dorothée computer to French Navy  
Dec 1961 introduction of IBM 7040      
Jan 1962 introduction of IBM 7094      
Feb 1962 acceptance of Harvest (based on Stretch) system by NSA      
Feb 1962 introduction of IBM 1710 process control computer. 
1710 was a derivative from 1620
     
Mar 1962   FCC approved "Bellboy" radio paging system    
1962 introduction of IBM 7070 business computer      
1962   foundation of ACT Advanced Computer Techniques by Charlie Lecht with a contract to fix LARC software    
1962   Erwin Tomash buys the disk business of Telex and founds Data Products Co    
1962     introduction of D3 punched cards sorter named Documentaire  
1962   US Congress establish Comsat Communications Satellite Corporation    
1962   introduction of Control Data 3600 scientific computer    
1962   introduction of npn transistors by Fairchild    
1962   creation of Control Data Chippewa Falls MN lab for Seymour Cray    
Mar 1962   creation of Informatics, a software subsidiary of Data Products, by Dr. Walter F. Bauer, Werner Frank, Richard Hill and Frank) Wagner    
1962   Dr.J.C.R. Licklider named at ARPA    
1962   introduction of RCA 3301 and of RACE magnetic cards random access memory RACE is announced by Bull on Gamma40 (RCA3301)
It will be connected to GE-400 by BGE
 
1962   development of SNOBOL--StriNg-Oriented symBOlic Language    
1962 introduction of GPSS General Purpose Simulation Language      
1962     experimental computer ANTINEA designed at CNET  
1962   introduction of SIMSCRIPT simulation language by Rand Corporation    
1962   introduction of GE-225 designed by Arnold Spielberg    
1962       NEC of Japan obtains a Honeywell license 
1962   creation of EDS Electronics Data Systems by Ross Perot.in Dallas TX    
1962     CIT of CGE group introduces CITAC 210B a process control computer designed by Didier Brue  
1962   foundation of CACI California Analysis Centers, Inc by Herb Kerr and Harry Markowitz to market services on SIMSCRIPT    
1962     introduction of CAE 510  
1962     IBM decides construction of La Gaude laboratory  
1962   first shipment of RCA 601 scientific computer to New Jersey Bell Telephone    
1962       introduction of ANITA (A New Inspiration To Arithmetic) by Sumlock Comptometer in England.
1962     creation of CAP by Bertrand Ascher and Jacques Lescault  
1962   installation of RCA CDP communications data processors at USAF ComlogNet    
1962 Bell loses its suit against Sperry Univac on challenge of ENIAC patents
1962       development of FP6000 computer at Ferranti-Packard a Canadian subsidiary of Ferranti
1962   first delivery of Univac III.
It was designed in Philadelphia division in 1958 as a transistor version of Univac II and was announced in Spring 1960
   
1962   first delivery of RCA 601 scientific computer    
Jun 1962   introduction of Univac 1004, a small card computer designed at Rowayton    
1962     establishment of a research lab by CNET in Lannion, Brittany  
9 Jul 1962       ICT absorbs EMI computer interests
10 Jul 1962   launch of Telstar 4  first telecommunications satellite, built by AT&T on 12 July, first television transmission by satellite between Plemeur-Bodou (in Britanny) on 13 July,first television transmission by satellite with Goonhilly Downs (Cornwall) and Raisting (Germany)
Jul 1962   first shipment of DEC PDP-4 , a 18-bits minicomputer designed by Gordon Bell for Foxboro    
Aug 1962   delivery of Burroughs D-825 to US Naval Research Laboratory    
Aug 1962   first delivery of SDS 910, one of the first civil computer featuring silicon transistors    
31 Aug 1962   Bell System's Teletypewriter Exchange Service is entirely operable by dialing. introduction of Teletype 33    
1962 introduction of IBM 7010 developed under Peter Fagg      
Sep 1962   release of Digital PDP-1 operating system written at MIT and BBN    
Sep 1962   first delivery of SDS 920    
Oct 1962     introduction by CMB of Gamma 10; a small card electronic computer  
1962       agreement between ICT and Remington Rand to sell Univac 1004 in UK
1962   GTE General Telephone and Electronics Corporation acquires Automatic Electric   ATEA of Belgium becomes GTE/ATEA
Oct 1962 introduction of IBM1440 small business computer designed at San Jose, transferred at Endicott      
Nov 1962 On a modified IBM 7090... ...MIT demonstrates CTSS    
Dec 1962 introduction of IBM 1620 mod 2      
Dec 1962       inauguration of Ferranti Atlas. The project had originated at the University of Manchester in 1956 under MUSE code-name and was joined by Ferranti in 1959
1962   Raytheon buys Packard-Bell computers that was then introducing PB-440    
Feb 1963 first delivery of Univac 1004 produced at Ilion NY Univac 1004 was introduced by ICT as ICT 1004 calculating tabulator
Mar 1963 termination of 1401-S project      
Jun 1963   delivery of first General Electric Datanet 30 to Chrysler for messages switching    
1963   introduction of LINC minicomputer by Digital Equipment, designed by Wesley Clark at Lincoln Lab    
1963     introduction of CAE 510 derived from RW-530  
20 Mar 1963     CMB concludes an agreement to sell the SEA CAB500 small electronic computer  
Apr 1963   introduction of Burroughs B-5000 computer designed by Bob Barton    
1963       delivery of English Electric KDF-9 computer
April 1963       Merge between Leo Computers and English Electric forming EEL English Electric Leo Computers Ltd
1963   standardization of ASCII code by ASA X3 committee, with large participation of  Bob Bemer, then at IBM.    
~1963     CAE introuces RW-130 military computer for French nuclear missile guidance  
1963   invention of mouse pointer device by Douglas Englebart at Stanford University    
1963   Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at Stanford University is founded by John McCarthy.    
May 1963 introduction of IBM 7094 mod 2 to be shipped in 1964      
26 Sep 1963       ICT incorporates Ferranti EDP interests, including West Gorton, Manchester plant
1963   introduction of Digital PDP-5, a 12-bits minicomputer designed by Gordon Bell and Ed de Castro    
1963   acquisition of Bendix computers by CDC    
1963   introduction of DAC-1 CAD workstation at General Motors    
1963   introduction of Royal McBee LGP-21    
1963 cession of SBC Service Business Company to Control Data, due to justice order      
1963       Golem computer developed by Israel Weizmann Institute 
1963       introduction of Siemens 3003
1963   Control Data acquires Bendix computers    
1963   ex-Datamatic EDP takes the name of Honeywell    
1963       Arnold Weinstock named managing director of GEC
1963   foundation of University Computing by Sam Wyly in Dallas TX    
1963   foundation of MSA Management Science America, Inc by Thomas Newberry (Georgia Tech)    
1963   development of Sketchpad with lightpen at MIT Lincoln Lab by Ivan Sutherland    
1963       introduction of audio-cassette by Philips
1963       first large-scale computer developed exclusively with Hitachi's own domestic technology
1963   termination of Packard-Bell PB440 project SETI develops  Pallas computer, by Yves Harrand ex-Bull Gamma 60 designer  
Aug 1963   introduction of CDC 6600 supercomputer    
Aug 1963   fist delivery of Burroughs B5000    
Oct 1963   acquisition of Friden Inc  by Singer     
3 Dec 1963   introduction of Honeywell H-200 and of its Liberator program targeted against IBM 1401    
Dec 1963 termination of IBM 1470 after first prototype for 1401S      

© Jean Bellec 2002

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